CHKDSK, also known as “check disk” is an application that comes by default installed on Windows operating systems and allows us to analyze the data structure of our hard drives in order to find possible errors or problems and solve them without reformat the disk and lose (in most cases) the data stored on the disc.
While this tool does not always solve 100% of problems, it is certainly a good place to start. The tool has been much improved in Windows 8 and Windows 10. We will focus on how to use this latest operating system, so if we use Windows 7, although we CHKDSK installed by default, it is possible that some of the functions more new are not implemented and we can not make use of them.
chkdsk – help
If we want to perform a scan and repair our entire disk, the universal command that we run is:
chkdsk C: / F / R
Analyzing the above command, C: is the drive letter we want to analyze (if instead of the Windows drive we analyze another must change it to D :, E :, etc.). / F means that the command solve all errors detected and / R to find all damaged disk sectors and, if possible, retrieve all your information.
Also, if the drive that Windows is not analyzed, we can add the parameter / X will force the volume to dismount to improve error detection and repair. Although the above we have enough, we must also meet other additional parameters that will allow us to have greater control over the operation of the tool and disk errors for both NTFS and FAT drives.
Scans and repairs your hard drive with NTFS CHKDSK
The first commands that we know is “scan” command allows us to scan the data structure of your hard drive to see if you need to apply any repairs or otherwise, has no problems. To do this, we just run:
chkdsk / scan
With Windows 8 and Windows 10 has been implemented the ability to repair errors with the operating system running without rebooting and remove the disc to proceed with the repair, however, some errors can not be repaired properly in this manner, so it is possible to force a repair “offline”, ie with the operating system restarts, running:
chkdsk / scan / forceofflinefix
We can also speed up the process by adding to the previous command parameter / perf, although we should note that this command will use many more resources and perhaps until the end, the computer will slow. Similarly, we can add the command / spotfix to force the tool to fix the errors already detected in previous analyzes, saving time and resources.
Other important parameters of this tool for NTFS are:
/ sdcleanup – Collects and deletes unused data by the analyzer (involves using / F).
/ B – Re-evaluating bad clusters on the volume (implies the use of / R).
/ C – Skips checking of cycles within the folder structure.
/ I – Performs a less vigorous check of index entries.
/ L: size – Change the size of the log file to the specified number, in KB. If no size is specified, it displays the current record size disc.
Scans, cleans and repairs FAT disk
If you have FAT disks, one of the specific parameters of this format is / freeorphanedchains . This parameter, rather than trying to repair the bad clusters, simply marked as available, allowing us to reuse the damaged space, but with a corresponding loss of information from them.
You can also run /markclean to mark the entire volume as a clean volume, even without forcing a repair. Both parameters must be used with care.